baseloadpowerBaseload Power

Baseload power is the amount of power required to meet the minimum consumer demand for electricity generation.

 

glossary_term_1Carbon Capture

The process of separating relatively pure carbon dioxide gas as a by-product of industrial processes (including synthetic ammonia production, hydrogen production and limestone calcination) and electricity generated from fossil fuels, such as coal and natural gas.

glossary_term_2Clean Coal Technology

The entire suite of technologies – both pre- and post-combustion – that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of coal-based electricity plants. These technologies include devices that increase the operational efficiency of a power plant, as well as those technologies that reduce emissions.

glossary_term_3Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth’s atmosphere. It is an unavoidable product of the combustion (oxidation) of carbon in fossil fuels (hydrocarbons) and biomass (carbohydrates). It is a greenhouse gas, along with water vapor, methane and others such as chlorofluorocarbons.

glossary_term_4Coal Gasification

The process of converting coal into synthetic “natural” gas by a process using incomplete combustion to create carbon monoxide (CO). The CO is transformed into a substitute natural gas through chemical interaction with a catalyst for use as a fuel or further processing and concentration into an industrial feedstock or liquid fuel.

glossary_term_5Carbon Sequestration

The fixation (or storage) of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a geologic or biologic sink.

glossary_term_6Enhanced Oil Recovery

Techniques used to recover residual petroleum resources left behind in depleted oil reservoirs through the injection of water and gases, such as carbon dioxide, into the oil-bearing geologic strata.

glossary_term_7Flue Gas

Emissions from fossil fuel combustion that are directed into the atmosphere through an enclosed passageway or stack. In modern facilities, the flue gas first is directed through a series of devices designed to rid the gases of specific emissions (e.g., sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and mercury) before its release into the atmosphere.

glossary_term_8FutureGen

A private-public partnership to design, build and operate the world’s first coal-fueled, near-zero emissions power plant. The facility’s design is intended to support the testing of commercial-scale carbon capture and sequestration.

glossary_term_9Greenhouse Gas

Any one of a group of gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor (clouds), and a variety of manmade chemicals that trap the sun’s radiant energy and prevent it from passing back out through Earth’s atmosphere and into space.

glossary_term_10Integrated Gasification Combined

Cycle (IGCC)

A technology for generating electricity that utilizes coal gasification to produce a synthesis gas. The “syngas” undergoes a cleaning process that removes particulates and sulfur compounds. The gas then is converted into electricity using a combustion turbine. Waste heat from the gasification process is used by additional turbines to generate supplemental electricity (a combined cycle), thereby increasing the efficiency of converting coal into electricity. The process integrates coal gasification with a combined cycle, both of which enjoy a long operating experience; it’s their integration that is innovative.

glossary_term_11Marginal Cost

A change in cost in conjunction with a change in units of quantity supplied or produced.

glossary_term_12Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

Compounds of nitrogen and oxygen produced by the combustion of fossil fuels.

glossary_term_13Particulate Matter

A small mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions. It can take the form of an aerosol, dust, fume, mist, smoke or spray.

glossary_term_14Pilot Project

An activity planned as a test or trial.

glossary_term_15Scrubber

Post-combustion technology that utilizes a chemical reaction to trap emissions, such as sulfur, present in flue gas prior to its release into the atmosphere.

glossary_term_16Sulfur Oxides (SOx)

Compounds containing sulfur and oxygen, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), created when coal, containing sulfur, is combusted.

supercriticaltechSuper Critical Technology

A subcritical steam generation unit operates at pressures such that water boils first and is then converted to superheated steam. At supercritical pressures, water is heated to produce superheated steam without boiling. Due to the improved thermodynamics of expanding higher pressure and temperature steam through the turbine, a supercritical steam generating unit is more efficient than a subcritical unit.

ultrasupercriticalgenUltra-Supercritical Generation

Ultra-supercritical (USC) steam generation represents an increase in steam cycle efficiency. A USC unit operates above supercritical pressure and at advanced steam temperatures above 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit (593o C), resulting in a more efficient steam cycle. This increased efficiency reduces fuel consumption, reagent consumption, solid waste, water use and operating costs.